Morocco is officially referred to as the Kingdom of Morocco and is situated in North Africa in the Maghreb region. Its capital city is Rabat and Casablanca is the largest city. Other major cities are Nador, Kenitra, Oujda, Meknes, Agadir, Safi, Fes, Salé, Tetouan, Tangier, and Marrakesh. Morocco has both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean coastlines.
Morocco is a constitutional monarchy, with the country’s prime minister as the head of a multi-party system and of government. The government exercises executive power. Legislative power, on the other hand, is vested in the two chambers of parliament (the Assembly of Councilors and the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco) and the government. The country’s constitution provides for a monarchy that has a parliament and a sovereign judiciary. These, therefore, form the three arms of government, i.e. the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches.
The executive branch is made up of the King and the prime minister. The king is both the ‘Commander of the Faithful’ and the secular political leader. He also appoints the prime minister who must be elected from a party with large representation in parliament. The King also appoints members of government and chairs the Council of Ministers. The prime minister serves as the head of the Moroccan government.
The legislative branch is made up of two chambers. The first is the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco with 325 members appointed for a 5-year term; 295 selected in multi-seat districts, and 30 in nationwide lists made up of women only. The other is the Assembly of Councilors with 270 members appointed for a 9-year term.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country’s judicial structure and its judges are selected by the King after getting recommendations from the Supreme Council of the Judiciary. There are other courts such as the High Court, Communal and District Courts, Courts of Appeal, the Standing Tribunal of the Armed Forces, First Instance Courts, and Trade Courts.
Morocco is formally separated into 16 administrative regions that have been partitioned again into 13 prefectures and 62 provinces. The prefectures and provinces are ruled by governors appointed by the King. Each province has a local government and an assembly. Every municipality has a mayor and an elected municipal council.
The Kingdom of Morocco has a multi-party system and all political parties participate in the elections. Electoral rules oversee the election procedure and make sure that no political party wins more than 20% of the seats in parliament.
The country’s constitution can only be changed with the King’s approval. The King is the only person who can suggest revisions of the constitution and call for a referendum on the same at the state level. Amendments can also be suggested by parliament and have to be passed by two-thirds majority in both houses before proceeding to a national vote. The King can, however, decide to forego the national vote. The constitution also points out that actions related to Islam and the monarchial structure cannot be revised.
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